Cape Malays…

and their Heritage

Archive for the ‘5. Quest for Self-Determination’ Category

Self-Empowerment: Bulawayo, Zimbabwe (1900 – )

Posted by tahirfarrath on March 2, 2010

(History of Muslims from South Africa)

Zeenat al-Islam Masjid, Volshenk Drive (off Reynolds Drive), Barham Green, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe was built and used by Cape Malay Muslims who had settled there from Cape Town and Kimberley, South Africa, during the early 1900s, this small mosque is otherwise known as the “Cape Malay Masjid”. Although the local people have lost all traces of “kombuis” Afrikaans, good “Cape Malay” surnames such as Cassim and Hendricks abound. A brass plaque says that the mosque library was opened by Boeta Moghammed Volkwijn.

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Self-Empowerment: Port Elizabeth (1900)

Posted by tahirfarrath on March 2, 2010

(History of Muslims of South Africa)

1900 – Pier St reet Mosque

This Mosque called Masjied-ul-Aziz was completed by the 27th July 1901 on land bought by Abdul Wahab Salie in South End after he sold the Strand Street Masjid in 1900. J.A. Holland drew the architectural work of the Mosque. A sum of 1345.00 pounds was tendered by Messrs Trunick &” Curtis, and it is said that the Mosque was not made Wakf at the time. Initially, the Masjid had a Shafi following. There was a court proceeding, and today, the Mosque is said to have a following from the Hanafi Mathhab. However, whatever transpired more than seventy years ago is now history.

Abdul Wahab Salie was the first Emaam and he was the father of Afieya, Moula, Koebra, Moegamat Tape, Haiem, Gadija and Galiema. The second Emaam was Noorien Connolly who was married to a lady known as Ouma B. There were no children from this union, but had the occasion to benefit from another two wives. His brother, Shieraaj Connolly became the third Emaam. He was married to Biebie Laamie, the sister of Biebie Rasie. Then Emaam Noorien’s son, Amien Connoly became Emaam who was the father of Faried, Salim, Moegsieda and Salama. He died at the age of fifty. The fifth Emaam was Abdullatief Kahaar who was married to Galiema, the sister of Hadji Abduragmaan Johardien. He had four children, namely: Joenain, Gouwa, Fatima and Haaniem.Hadji Igsaan Narkedien or Emaam Saan as he was known was the sixth Emaam and his father was Hadji Achmat Narkedien. He was the father of Ismail, Achmat Razeen and Nakieyah.

This Mosque was the subject of substantial agitation among the Muslim community when a decision was made to build a freeway across it. Then the top section of the Mosque’s Minaret was dismantled. The matter was taken to parliament and armed with a Fatwa from Egypt, the Muslims eventually succeeded when it was agreed to stop the construction over the Masjid. The diversion and uncompleted section of the freeway is still evident to this day (Abdul Gakiem Abrahams, 1989?).

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Self-Empowerment: Cape (1899)

Posted by tahirfarrath on March 2, 2010

(History of Muslims in South Africa)

1899 – Nurul Muhammadia Islam Masjid, Cape Town

The Nurul Muhammadia Islam Masjid in Vos Street, Cape Town, was constructed in 1899. This was the tenth masjid to be built in Cape Town and the first imam of the masjid was Ebrahim Salie from 1899 to 1928, followed by Imam Abduraghmaan [`Abd al-Rahman] Salie [1928-?], Imam Basardien Basardien [?-1974], Sheikh Armien Davids [ 1974-1991 ].

http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/library-resources/online%20books/history-muslims/1800s.htm

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Self-Empowerment: Pretoria (1898)

Posted by tahirfarrath on March 2, 2010

(History of Muslims in South Africa)

1898 – Oral reports reveal that ‘Abdal Munjari Solomons arrived from Cape Town via Kimberley. He fought alongside the Boers in the Anglo-Boer war. The Malay Muslims in Pretoria settled in the Malay location known as Marabastad from where they were forcibly removed form 1969 onwards. For the first time, Malays had the opportunity to purchase their own residential properties in Eersterust. However, the majority resettled in Ladium (M. Abduragiem Paulsen, 2003).

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Self-Empowerment: Stellenbosch (1897)

Posted by tahirfarrath on March 2, 2010

(History of Muslims in South Africa)

The first Masjid was built in 1897 and Imam Abdul Gabier was the community’s first Imam. An Islamic school was opened in 1911 to accommodate the increasing Muslim population.

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Self-Empowerment: Port Elizabeth-South End (-)

Posted by tahirfarrath on March 2, 2010

C.J. Skead in his “Reminiscences L.B.” Vol.2 states that the Malay Quarters of Port Elizabeth were in Strand Street in the 1870s and when the Paapen Bietjies farm was sold off in lots in order to create of the new suburb of South End, some Muslims bought of these lots. Muslims also inhabited the “Little Irish Town” along with the Irish in Evatt and Alice Streets. Some of the Muslims had very humble beginnings, living in tin shanties near the beach. A large number of Muslims resided in Brook Street near the railway station. During 1880, the area was taken over by the Railways and the Muslims moved to South End. Although the Muslims became diluted with other races, they upheld their Islamic religion. Rather than turning people away from it, they drew them towards it and accepted them into the community as Malays. The Malays were well known artisans, tailors, dressmakers, cooks and fishermen. Among them were Salie Sanoola, Abdol Sataar, April Abrahams, Affelia, Awallie, Dollie (a boatman), Abdol Galie (a tailor), Jappie and lakardien (the greengrocers), Madatt (a fisherman) and “Old Darby” – the “Greatest Whaler in the Country”. Paul Kariem, Jappie and Soudien Badien were the famous boat coxswain racers, and the other names at these events were Salie, Raffie and Abdul Mallick. There was also Jan Oesman who contested the right of an Emaam to appoint his sons, brothers, relatives or Gatieps as his successor, contending that the congregation as a whole should appoint the Emaam on a simple principle of competence and ability (Abdul Gakiem Abrahams, 1989?).

Before the National Party came into power in 1948, South End and other parts of Port Elizabeth were very multi-cultural and multi-racial. Whites, coloureds, Indians, Chinese and Africans lived in harmony and intermingled with each other freely. Then came the Group Areas Act of 1950. The residents of South End were given a choice of several homes in a pre-allocated area, which were chosen according to their skin colour and income level. (The areas were 10 – 25 kms beyond Kempston Road and added to Korsten, Shauderville, Springdale, Gelvandale, Helenvale, Windvogel, Chetty, Bloemendaal and Bethelsdorp such suburbs as Gelvan Park, Parkside, Hillside, Salt Lake, West End, Arcadia, Salsoneville, etc. Certain areas were called Malabar [Indians], Kabega Park [Chinese], and New Brighton, Kwazakele, Zwide, etc. for the blacks. Others settled in Missionvale. All the best areas were reserved for the whites while the State had prefabricated “matchbox” homes built on cramped plots for most non-whites.) Of the 3.5 million people who were required to leave their homes, only 2% were white (so they may enjoy the remaining 80% of the city). The people of South End were not the only ones affected by these new laws. Areas such as Fairview, Bethelsdorp, Central Hill, Korsten, Salisbury Park, North End, Sidwell and Neave Township where also ‘disqualified’ in terms of the Group Areas Act of 1957 due to their multi-cultural communities. In spite of the violence in certain areas, people of these different ethnic groups are still – even today – largely concentrated in the areas in which they were sent to live during the Apartheid regime, making true re-integration and harmony difficult at best.

http://southendmuseum.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6&Itemid=7

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Self-Empowerment: Port Elizabeth (1894 – )

Posted by tahirfarrath on March 2, 2010

(History of Muslims in South Africa)

1894 – Rudolp Street Masjied

This Masjid was built in 1894 on Lot no.34 when the farm of Paapen Bietjies was sold to develop the new suburb of South End. There is little history on how the Mosque came to be built. (Rather than a split in the Grace Street Mosque congregation, it is more likely because of the increasing Muslim population in South End.) Emaam Jalaludien was the first Emaam and the father of Emaam Moegamat Baakier. His father was Abdul Wahab Salie, the Emaam of Pier Street Masjid. The second Emaam was Tayboe, the father of Abduraoaf Tayboe. Next was Emaam Awalie who had five children, one of whom was Hadji Jawaiyer – mother of Sheikh Jamiel Jardien. Ayoob Sandan who lived opposite the Masjid was the fourth Emaam, and he was the father of Galiema, Fagma, Jalaludien, Hassiem and Abduraoaf. The fifth Emaam was the second  Emaam’s son, Emaam Abduraoaf Tayboe.Then came Emaam Omar Mallick who was the father of Hadji Ganief, Abu Bakar, Mallick, Yusuf, Zainab and Amina. Emaam Sadaka Abader, son of Hadji Moegamat Abader, was the seventh Emaam (Abdul Gakiem Abrahams, 1989?). His sister, Mariam, was married to Ebrahiem Safedien, and his cousin, Hadji Hishaam Abader was married to Hadji Tougeeda Adams of Cape Town. Their daughter, Nuruniesah, married Toyer Farrath. The son, Abdullah, married Ebrahiem Safedien and Mariam’s daughter, Nuru. Hafis Majedie, theyoungest son, is now married to Zainab. Hadji Hishaam’s sister, Farida, was married to Achmat Khan of Cape Town. As mentioned previously, Abubakr Effendi’s second son, Hisham N’imatullah, ran a Muslim school in Port Elizabeth for a number of years.

http://southendmuseum.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6&Itemid=7

South End Cemetary

One only has to visit and stand next to the graves to feel those who lie buried here.  Some of the unmarked graves and slates tell their own stories. There are graves that are cared for by those who remember them and others are forlorn, unrecognisable and forgotten among the overgrowth of weeds and shrubs (Abdul Gakiem Abrahams, 1989?).

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Self-Empowerment: Apartheid (1892 – )

Posted by tahirfarrath on March 2, 2010

Racial segregation in South Africa really began during the colonial times that resulted in the Franchise and Ballot Act of 1892 to disenfranchise the blacks, and the Natal Legislative Assembly Bill of 1894, which deprived Indians of the right to vote. The British colonial rulers introduced a system of Pass Laws in the Cape Colony and Colony of Natal during the 19th century. In 1905 the General Pass Regulations Bill denied blacks the vote altogether and limited them to fixed areas. (They simply feared being out-numbered.) Then followed the Asiatic Registration Act (1906) requiring all Indians to register and carry passes, and the South Africa Act (1910) that enfranchised whites, giving them complete political control over all other race groups and removing the right of blacks to sit in parliament. Non-Whites representation was short-lived. When the Union of South Africa was formed on 31 May 1910, the Afrikaner Nationalists had a relatively free hand to reorganise the country according to the Zuid Afrikaansche Repulick (ZAR – South African Republic or Transvaal) and Orange Free State.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa_under_apartheid

The term Apartheid was introduced during the 1948 election campaign by DF Malan’s Herenigde Nasionale Party (HNP – ‘Reunited National Party’). The United Party actually gained the majority of votes in the 1948 general election. But due to the manipulation of the geographical boundaries of the country’s constituencies before the election, the Herenigde Nasionale Party managed to win the majority of constitutencies and took power. In 1951 the HNP and Afrikaner Party officially merged to form the National Party, which became synonymous with Apartheid. From 1958, the blacks were deprived of their citizenship or legally becoming citizens of their own land.

http://africanhistory.about.com/od/apartheid/u/Apartheid.-4-D.htm

Later reforms to apartheid in the 1980s failed to quell the mounting opposition, and in 1990 President Frederik Willem de Klerk began negotiations to end apartheid. This culminated in multi-racial democratic elections in 1994, which were won by the African National Congress under Nelson Mandela. The vestiges of apartheid, nevertheless, still seem to shape South African politics and society.

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Self-Empowerment: Cape (1891)

Posted by tahirfarrath on March 1, 2010

(History of Muslims in South Africa)

1891 – Cape Muslim population census

The 1891 census reported:

* 15 099 Muslims [13 907 `Malay’] in the Colony,

* 11 287 Muslims in Cape Town.

1892 – Establishment of Quwatul Islam Masjid

The Quwatul Islam Masjid in Loop Street, Cape Town, was the first masjid to be established by “Indian” Muslims of Hanafi madhhab and was the ninth masjid to be built in the Mother City. The property was acquired by a trust on March 14, 1892; the trustees being Essop Molvi, Hamid Gool, Abdulla Hoosen, Abdul Cader, Adam Hadjie Goolmohamed,. Mohamed Ebrahim, Zeepoo Moola and Archier Mohamed Pawley. The Quwatul Islam Masjid was initially established to serve the need of the “Indian” Muslims. The new settlers, however, became completely absorbed in the mainstream community of Bo-Kaap. Thus the masjid came to serve the entire Bo-Kaap residency. This masjid isimportant in the history of Cape Muslims as it shows the cohesive power of Islam to draw different cultural groups, even against their wishes, into a common brotherhood.

The first imam of the masjid was Mogamed Talabodien [Muhammad Talab al-Din] from 1892 to 1922. He was a scholar of renown, Islamic law being his speciality. His counsel was greatly appreciated by the Muslim people. He died in 1922 and was succeeded by his son, Achmat Taliepwho stood down in favour of Maulvi Hussein Dinwho came from India in 1932. In 1935 Imam Achmat Taliep became imam again until 1940 whenMaulana Mujiebo Rahman [Mujib a]-Rahman], an Al-Azhar graduate, arrived. The Maulana was a dedicated da’i and authored several books on Islam. He started a monthly publication, Al-Muathin, which was probably the first Islamic newspaper in South Africa. He died in 1956. Imam `Abdul Latief , son of Imam Achmat, succeeded the Maulana and took over the affairs of the masjid until 1971. Sheikh Mogamad [Muhammad] ` Abbas Jassiem was then appointed imam. He served the community until 1985 when he was “unceremoniously dismissed from office for being a suspected Ahmadi sympathiser”. Imam Masoom Ebrahim was appointed as imam in 1989 after the two sons of Imam `Abdul Latief of Habibia Masjid served as jointimams. Today, the Quwatul Islam Masjid stands as a memory of a bygone era. The Group Areas Act, having forced the community to remote areas, left this masjid with few worshippers especially during maghrib, `isha’ and fajr salawat.

http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/library-resources/online%20books/history-muslims/1800s.htm

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Self-Empowerment: Cape Muslim Challenges (1886 – 1890)

Posted by tahirfarrath on March 1, 2010

(History of Muslims in South Africa)

1886 – The cemetery riots

On Sunday, January 17, 1886, two days after Tana Baru Cemetery was officially closed when the Public Health Act No 4 of 1883 became statute, 3 000 Cape Muslims, in defiance of the law, buried a Muslim child at Tana Baru. Rioting broke out thereafter resulting in law and order being disrupted in Cape Town for three days. The Cemetery Riots of 1886 constituted probably the most significant religio-political event in the 19th century history of the Cape Muslims.

1886 – Activities of Achmat Attaoullah Effendi

Achmat Attaoullah [Ahmad `Ata Allah] Effendiwas born in Cape Town of a Capetonian mother and a Turkish father. He was actively involved in the affairs of the Muslim community, both in Cape Town and also at Kimberley.

The first major impression Achmat made was during the Cemetery Riot of 1886 when the Muslim community was split as a result of the Hanafi-Shafi’i disputes. He was an educated man and served on the Malay Cemetery Committee, alongside Abdol Burns, when delegated to see the Premier, Governor or the Colonial Secretary. He played an important role in the establishment of the Moslem Cemetery Board.

After the cemetery dispute, Achmat Effendi settled in Kimberley where he served as a religious teacher. He showed a keen interest in local politics and public affairs. While he was in Kimberley he decided to stand for a seat in the Cape Parliament. This disturbed the White South African politicians: De Waal, Cecil John Rhodes, Saur, Orpen, Jan Hofmeyer and others. To prevent Achmat Effendi from winning a seat in the Cape Parliament, the White ruling Parliament encouraged the Constitution Ordinance Amendment Bill and left it to Orpen to introduce it as a private member’s motion. The primary aim of the Bill was to curtail the cumulative vote [in Cape Town] which allowed the voter to exercise his given number of votes to a single candidate. Effendi with the Muslim vote of Cape Town would have had a fair chance of being elected through the cumulative system.

The Muslims were distressed at the Bill and the open attempt made to keep Achmat Effendi out of the House of Parliament. A petition registering the Muslim protest was given to Mr Barnato, MP for Kimberley. This action, spearheaded by the Cape imams and supported by Muslim voters, did not deter the passing of the third reading of the Bill – which came to be known as the “Effendi Bill”.

The Constitution Ordinance Amendment Act No 16 of 1893 became law on August 25, 1893. The debates clearly showed the racial prejudice of the White Parliamentarians. Effendi was not discouraged although confronted with a further problem: the “Ticket of Four”. Four candidates: T F Fuller, J Brown, H Beard and L Weiner, grouped themselves to fight the elections under one banner, whereby Effendi stood no chance of winning. Achmat Effendi submitted an open letter to the electorate on December 22, 1893, attacking theConstitution Ordinance Amendment Act and the “Ticket of Four”, and also presented his manifesto, making it known that he was a British subject and would represent the whole electorate of Cape Town, and not only the Muslims. The cardinal principles of his campaign were political equality, religious liberty and commercial and educational progress of the people of Cape Town. Polling day came on January 29, 1894. Achmat Effendi was heavily defeated, receiving only 699 votes. In his post-election speech, he declared: “It is the first time in the history of South Africa that a non-European candidate has stood for Parliament. I had the moral courage to do so. 1 bear my defeat like a man… “

Achmat Effendi never again attempted to gain a seat in Parliament, a position which would have been impossible in 1910 with the formation of the Union of South Africa. Shortly after the 1894 elections, he left South Africa never to return. His was the first and last attempt by a Black voter to gain a seat in an open Parliament.

http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/library-resources/online%20books/history-muslims/1800s.htm

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